The financial policy of the bank allows you to regulate the formation and transformation of financial resources, control and coordinate the processes of their modification. It should be based on a study of the level of development of financial relations with clients and counterparties achieved by the bank and should be aimed at their modernization [1,2,3,8.10]. The analysis of the existing basic principles of the formation of the financial policy of a commercial bank made it possible to systematize and clarify them (table 1).
Basic principles of financial policy formation of a commercial bank
|Principles of formation||Definition|
|The principle of efficiency||The financial policy should be structured in such a way that, when implemented, the bank can receive sufficient income from its activities at the lowest possible or optimal costs. For this principle to function clearly, it is necessary to clearly define the objectives of the financial policy and to present specific indicators of the results of its implementation.|
|The principle of optimality||If the bank follows the principle of optimal financial policy in its activities, it is possible to optimize the volume and quality of resources at minimal cost. In its activities, the bank needs to attract financial resources that can be effectively applied, serviced and provided for their repayment in a timely manner. It is also necessary to reflect the requirements of the bank’s liquidity and reliability when implementing an optimal financial policy.|
|The principle of adequacy||The financial policy of a commercial bank should reflect its compliance with the economic situation in the country, the financial condition of the bank and its position on the market. This principle implies the need to achieve and maintain the elements of financial policy, taking into account coherence, compatibility, unity and mutual complementarity.|
|The principle of security||The financial policy of any commercial bank should be implemented with caution and a reasonable approach to attracting financial resources. The bank should abandon risky operations that can pose a greater threat to the loss of liquidity and financial stability.|
|The principle of validity and consistency||The wording of the elements of the financial policy should be clear and understandable. They should have scientific validity, specific documentation and not contradict each other.|
|The principle of customer orientation||When creating and developing a financial policy, the bank should perceive customers not only as a source of income, but as agents with whom it is possible to build long-term relationships.|
Updated by the author
The procedure for forming financial policy should include:
- Definition of the general idea and purpose of the financial policy of a commercial bank
- Creating a financial mechanism that will be implemented in the tactics of a commercial bank [5,7,8]
- Development of a system of indicators that assess and monitor the bank’s financial policy 
Based on the presented components, it is possible to develop a procedure for forming the financial policy of a commercial bank (table 2).
The procedure for forming the financial policy of a commercial bank and its content
|The procedure for forming the bank’s financial policy||The contents procedure|
|Development of the concept of financial policy of a commercial bank||1. Description of the purpose of the financial policy, analysis of the impact of internal and external factors on the financial policy, analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the bank, analysis of the main performance indicators of the bank
2. Development of bank development scenarios for the formation and modification of financial resources. A strategic plan of action for the implementation of each of the scenarios.
3. Clarification of the indicators needed to evaluate the implemented scenarios.
4. Minimizing costs when implementing scenarios.
5. Implementation of scenarios in the current time period.
6. Bringing the system of indicators of scenario to specific divisions of the bank.
|Formation of a mechanism for implementing the bank’s financial policy and tactics||1. Determining the range of potential and real customers of a commercial bank.
2. Creating a system of long-term relationships with customers.
3. Development of directions for the transformation of financial resources to increase the bank’s profit.
4. Taking into account the bank’s positions and risk indicators when implementing financial policy directions.
|Development of a system of indicators for monitoring and controlling financial policy||1. Identification of the main criteria and indicators for monitoring and controlling the bank’s financial policy at all levels of the management system [6,9].
2. Monitoring the consistency of individual types of plans.
3. Use of criteria and requirements to create the necessary information base of the bank.
Compiled by the author based on the analysis of sources of economic literature
It should be noted that the financial resources of a commercial bank are the main form of financial policy formation. One of the criteria for assessing the quality of financial policy implementation and development is the amount and structure of the bank’s financial resources.
To form the financial policy of a commercial bank, it is necessary to develop a certain algorithm. From our point of view, it can include the following components:
- Determination of the general economic (commercial) goals of a commercial bank;
- Analysis of the bank’s financial condition;
- Analysis of the business and financial environment;
- Definition of norms and principles in the bank’s financial management that allow to solve the tasks set (table 1).
Consider the first stage of the algorithm implementation. A commercial bank needs to highlight the importance of the commercial tasks being solved. In a bank, financial resources play the function of collateral, so they do not have independence. If there is a situation where funds are not directed in the direction that was originally intended, then there is an increase in risks, which leads to a decrease in financial results.
The second stage of the implementation of the proposed algorithm is the analysis of the financial condition of a commercial bank. It is necessary for the formation of short-term financial policy. In the process of implementation, it is necessary to calculate the following indicators:
— own working capital;
— liquidity ratios
— the ratio of accounts receivable and accounts payable.
You also need to define:
-the method used to finance current assets;
— availability of provisions for uncollectible accounts receivable;
— the presence of overdue accounts payable
At the third stage, it is necessary to analyze the business and financial environment. The analysis of the financial environment involves the systematization and analysis of internal and external factors that affect banking activities.
The external financial environment affects the commercial bank through various changes at the state level, when interacting with counterparties for financial transactions, insurance agents and customers.
The external financial environment consists of a system of factors and conditions that determine the form of financial activity in order to achieve an optimal result.
The internal financial environment is determined by the results of the functioning of the bank itself, and depends on the quality and effectiveness of management.
Based on the proposed algorithm it is possible to present a sequence of actions that implements the relationship of external and internal elements of the financial policy of a commercial bank.
The internal elements of a commercial bank’s financial policy include:
- Organization of the structure for the formation of the bank’s financial policy. This structure has an impact on the processes of formation, transformation and optimization of the bank’s financial resources, as well as contributes to the achievement of the overall goals of its financial policy. It is necessary to form the composition of the management structure and divisions of the commercial bank, which would be responsible for the definition and implementation of financial policy.
- The objectives of the bank’s financial policy are defined in terms of strategy and tactics. The final goal is to increase the quantity and quality of the bank’s financial resources while minimizing the bank’s expenses and creating a certain level of profitability and liquidity, taking into account all types of banking risks.
- Financial planning. With the help of financial planning, you can assess the prospects and formulate potential opportunities for the development of the bank. With the help of financial planning, the main methods regulating the impact on the bank’s financial resources are formed. With the help of financial planning, you can confirm the achievability of financial policy goals, balance strategic and tactical goals, form sources of financial resources of the bank and effectively divide them, assess risks and sources of coverage, evaluate the results obtained.
- Results of financial policy implementation. They are reflected in the financial and economic performance indicators of the bank and should be consistent with the objectives of the financial policy. Following the main directions of financial policy, it is possible to distinguish groups of indicators
References1.Zernova L.E. Factors influencing the management of the bank's operations and risk management // Vector of the economy - №2 (44) – 2020 – p. 20
2.Zernova L.E., Titarenko I.A. Financial management in a commercial bank // Collection of materials of all-Russian scientific conference of young researchers with international participation, dedicated to the Jubilee year in «RSU of the name of A. N. Kosygin» "Innovative development techniques and technologies in industry (INTEX-2020)" - 2020. - p. 20-24.
3. Zernova L.E., Titarenko I.A. Principles of forming the financial policy of a commercial bank // Collection of materials of the all-Russian Scientific Conference of Young Researchers «Economy today: current state and prospects of development» (Vector-2019). - 2019. - pp. 214-218.
4. Kaplan R. Balanced system of indicators. From Strategy to action /P. Kaplan, D. Norton. - 2nd edition. - Moscow: Olimp Business – 2016 -320 p.
5. Basovsky L.E. Strategic management / L. E. Basovsky. - M.: INFRA-M - 2016-365p.
6. Neretina E.A., Soldatova E.V. Modern concepts of efficiency of commercial bank activity // Finance and Credit. - 2010- № 13 - p. 397
7. Mazoruk A.V. Principles of bank strategy formation//Banking.- 2012. -№ 2 - p. 15
8. Mardarovskaya Yu.V. Long-term and short-term financial policy of the enterprise // Moscow – «Publishing House Elite» - 2009 – 245p.
9. Olkhova R G. Banking. Management in a modern bank // Moscow:- KnoRus, - 2017-304 p.
10.Prikhodko E.A. Evaluation of the financial policy of the organization. Electronic resource. Access mode