The labor process and the process of increasing value in the context of the economic crisis provoked by the pandemic

UDC 658.562
Publication date: 04.11.2020
International Journal of Professional Science №11-2020

The labor process and the process of increasing value in the context of the economic crisis provoked by the pandemic

Smetanina T.V.
Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor
of St. Petersburg State University of Industrial Technologies,
St. Petersburg, RF
Abstract: Labor is the basis for value creation. Man produces labor. The displacement of labor into the virtual sphere from the material sphere generates a change in the requirements for a person, as such. Digital services are virtual services. They can be seen as a reinforcement of a material good. The quality of a digital service determines the quality of the product that it promotes. In the context of a social and economic crisis, it is necessary to anticipate changes in the requirements for knowledge, labor and human skills. Digital services are usually included in the main product, so the cost of digital services should be equivalent and comparable to the cost of this product. The material sphere remains more significant for society than the immaterial one. This predetermines the smoothing out of the consequences of crises, including those expressed in the form of a drop in the quality of goods and an increase in unemployment.
Keywords: Process, product value, service, economic crisis, labor, pandemic, quality, exchange value, use value, social crisis.

The problems of the consequences of economic and social crises, loss of quality and unemployment can be solved by analyzing the basic concepts used in economics.

The relevance of this type of research is predetermined by the current conditions for the functioning of socio-economic systems in society.

Goods are born in the form of use values. This is their homegrown natural form [1]. A commodity is inherently both a commodity and a bearer of value. Possession of two forms — the natural form and the form of value determine the value of the product as such.

The value of a commodity is its social form and exchange value. Goods are interesting only when they can be exchanged.

The value of goods can be expressed in relative and equivalent values. One product can be active, another product can be passive. One commodity can be included in its value in the cost of another commodity.

As a result, the process of establishing value will be predetermined by the active or passive position of the goods being compared with each other.

We consider goods both in the form of a product and in the form of a service. In the context of the economic crisis, it is important to determine the primary and secondary nature of the goods presented. One product is the basis of another product. If we consider the development of digital processes in a pandemic, then it can be noted that digitalization processes clothe an active product in a kind of passive form. Digital processes from the point of view of F. Kotler [2] determine the reinforcement of an active product in its promotion in the context of an economic crisis [6]. Again, it should be noted that this type of crisis is provoked by social processes in society. The pandemic has decisively affected all areas of human activity. Labor began to be more and more displaced into the area of ​​non-material production and furnished in a virtual sphere.

Digital services have moved into the category of active goods that affect the cost of passive products and services. If we define the concepts of the relative form of value and the equivalent form of value, then it can be noted that the cost of digital services can be included in the composition of the relative and equivalent forms of value. It all depends on what kind of product they influence.

The same values ​​should be reduced to one equivalent, then they can be considered regardless of the amount of goods presented.

In this case, posting information about a product on social networks, on a website, organizing the sale of goods through Internet placements, allows the digital promotion service to be reduced to one equivalent.

The psychological impact of the social crisis on a person [3,4], which in this case under consideration is a potential buyer and customer of goods, accelerates the process of moving the function of promoting goods into virtual space.

Labor is the prototype of the value of a commodity. It is contained in this value. Tearing off the cost of moving goods from the material sphere to the virtual one, labor also undergoes deformation. As a result, labor becomes virtual. And its value is taking on a new form.

The equivalence of dissimilar goods reveals the specifics of the labor inherent in it. If we consider digital services and transport services, namely virtual and material services, then the equivalence of these services determines that the labor that is part of them predetermines the specifics.

 The placement of services in the virtual area in the future can lead to a decrease in the demand for labor in the material area, and this will further affect the requirements for the knowledge, skills and experience of potential workers or carriers of this labor.

As a result of these processes, the generation of a new kind of unemployed may occur. To make many professions unclaimed in the current conditions.

If we consider the quality of a digital service, then it is included in the cost of an active product, in which the digital service plays the role of a form of product reinforcement.

That is, a product is of high quality only when the service that promotes it and is its reinforcement is also of high quality [10, 11].

As for the use value, the product itself, which is promoted through a digital service, has a more significant use value. Hence, we can conclude that a digital service cannot be more significant in its use value than the product that it supports.

Returning to the growth of unemployment in conditions of substitution of services in the virtual sphere, it should be noted that most of the use value still remains in the material sphere. Therefore, by carrying out a proportional redistribution of values ​​from the virtual to the material sphere, it is possible to manage the economic consequences of the crisis.

The labor time it takes to produce digital services is a measure of value. As well as working time, which is spent on the production of goods in the material sphere. Labor productivity determines the equivalent value as well as the need for people. This affects employment. That is, in order to increase the need for labor, and therefore reduce unemployment, it is necessary to increase the number of digital services provided. Implement them actively in all areas of activity. To ensure that as a reinforcement of the product, they can offer themselves for any product.

The cyclical nature of economic crises gives rise to an abrupt development of economic relations that affect the economy of socio-economic systems, the quality of goods and for each person separately [7,8,9].

The value of the product [12] depends on the amount of labor that is invested in the product. As a result, by improving the quality of labor, redistributing it between the production of the basic goods and the goods for reinforcement, we obtain a positive cumulative synergistic effect that positively affects the state of the economy of the sovereign territory as a whole [13, 14, 15].


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