Throughout the history of mankind, the educational process was carried out with direct contact between two people, student and teacher. Most often, the transfer of experience took place «from father to son», «from master to apprentice». In rare cases, a person had the opportunity to use rare and expensive handwritten books in teaching.
There were also educational institutions in antiquity. (schools in Greek cities and universities) and in the middle ages(educational institutions at temples and monasteries).
Later, since the renaissance, with the help of the invention of the printing press and the dissemination of written sources of information, educational institutions acquired a look familiar to modern man. Teachers and educators conducted training with a group of students using printed textbooks.
At the end XVIII century in Europe appeared «correspondent training», facilitated by the emergence of a stable and affordable postal service. In this way, students received educational materials and had the opportunity to interact with teachers., texting. In Russia, this method appeared at the endXIXcentury. In the future, many universities began to practice this format of education..
The first distance education university was established in the UK in1969and was called the «Open University of Great Britain», which I received for a reason, and to demonstrate its accessibility and democracy due to the low price and the absence of the need for an in-person visit.
The emergence of radio and television brought with it a number of changes in the field of distance learning. This event was a great success and contributed to a strong increase in the audience. An example is educational TV shows., which have been on the air since50-1990s.Despite all the advantages, this format had a clear disadvantage: the student was deprived of feedback from the teacher.
Prevalence of personal computer use at the end1980-x gave a chance to simplify and automate the educational process.
In Russia, the date of the official development of distance learning is considered to bethirtyMay1997of the year. Then came order no.1050Ministry of Education of Russia, which allowed to conduct an experiment of distance learning in the field of education, which was subsequently extended.
Currently, where almost everyone owns a computer and has access to the Internet, distance learning has increased its relevance and effectiveness. Radio and television have undoubtedly faded into the background, giving way to the internet. With its help, communication and feedback between the student and the teacher have reached a high level of development, became more convenient and practical.
This has become especially acute during the coronavirus pandemic, which led to the temporary closure of a large number of educational institutions. In this regard, many schools and universities began to actively join the distance online format.-learning. Platforms zoom, Skype, Discord became the basis for such studies.
Thus, the possibility of distance learning appeared along with the first sources of information. With their development, the results and quality of this training format have increased..
Distance education and its features
The main differences between distance education and part-time education are the following points:
— constant contact with the teacher, possibility of prompt discussion with him of emerging issues, usually, by means of telecommunications;
– the possibility of organizing discussions, general work on plans during the study of the educational course;
– transfer of theoretical materials to students in the form of printed or electronic textbooks, which allows you to either completely abandon the installation sessions with the arrival at the university, or significantly reduce their number and duration.
Distance learning allows:
- the cost of distance learning is slightly lower than traditional education, therefore, the final cost of such training becomes more affordable;
- distance learning provides an opportunity to make the learning process more individual, thereby increasing its efficiency.;
- increase the level of quality of education through the use of modern teaching aids, electronic libraries, etc..;
- help save time, which is spent on fees and travel;
- this format of training is especially convenient for people with disabilities;
- active use of various media files and technologies(Images, video clips, audio recordings, etc.)in the educational material significantly increases the level of perception and the quality of assimilation of new information;
- the student has the advantage of simultaneously studying in several educational organizations in several areas;
- Opportunity to continuously improve the level of one’s own qualifications.
Distance educational technologies are used both for studying individual advanced training courses, as well as higher education. There are two main forms of distance learning :online and offline.
Types of distance learning
Chat-classes– training sessions, carried out using the chat-technologies. The lessons are set up like this, that all students learn simultaneous access to the chat. Many distance learning institutions practice the use of chat-schools, where via chat-classrooms, the functioning of distance teachers and students is formed and maintained.
Web-classes– distance learning of all forms, which are organized by means of telecommunications and other various online-technologies.
Specially organized forums help with the creation of such classes, the form of work of which is to study a certain topic with the help of notes, left on one of these sites with the program already installed on it.
The difference between the above activities is, what’s the web-forums can enable multi-day work, and also do not require synchronous communication between the student and the teacher.
teleconference– training is based on mailing lists via e-mail. For such training-type classes, it is common to achieve educational objectives. In addition to this form of learning, there are forms of distance education, in which educational materials are sent by mail to the regions.
telepresence– remote presence with the help of a robot R.Bot 100. Currently in Moscow, in one of the schools, an experiment is underway to introduce this type of distance learning. Boy-disabled person, being at home at the computer, hears, sees, talking with a robot. The teacher asks him questions, he answers. At the same time, the teacher sees the student, because there is a monitor on the robot. With the help of such technologies, the student artificially, but quite realistically immersed in the learning environment, while feeling almost the full impression, that he is in class with his peers. In case of positive results of this experiment, this method can become quite popular among Russian schools.
listening and repeating exercises on audio and video media after the speaker(in the presence of).
Prospects for the development and application of distance learning
Distance learning can be called a simple and affordable learning system. In the modern world, such education is readily used by Europeans for the development of additional education. The student is able to acquire stable automated skills, regularly solving practical problems. In turn, theoretical knowledge is mastered without additional effort. naturally becoming part of training exercises. The main principle of successful consolidation of the acquired theoretical and practical skills is the process of systematic study of materials.
However, Further development and effective application of distance education is hampered by the following problems:
-Lack of real, ”live” communication between students and teachers. That is, all those moments are missing, associated with an individual approach to training and education. And if there is no teacher nearby, which usually emotionally colors knowledge and contributes to the perception of the material, This, сertainly, significant minus.
-A range of individually-psychological conditions are absent in home schooling. Distance education requires regular rigid self-discipline, and the result of learning directly depends on independence, abilities and self-awareness of the student.
-Permanent access to sources of educational materials is required(electronic textbooks, video materials, etc.).This requires good technical equipment at home, but not everyone who wants to get an education has a computer and access to the Internet.
-Lack of practical training, necessary to consolidate the theory and improve the assimilation of knowledge.
-Lack of regular control over the student, which for a Russian person is rather a negative sign. Few people manage to overcome laziness on their own.
-Educational electronic programs and courses are not always well developed and meet all international requirements from-due to insufficient qualification of specialists, creating similar tutorials, since today it is still a new and insufficiently studied direction.
-In distance education, teaching is conducted mainly in writing only. For some students, the lack of opportunity and requirements to express their knowledge orally can lead to poor quality assimilation of knowledge and many other problems. In our opinion, distance education has its pros and cons, but also it has prospects for development in the future. New technologies will allow us to open up new areas of science and education, will open up new opportunities for self-development.
Thus, distance education format has both significant advantages, as well as cons. In the future, it is possible to unlock the potential of this area, subject to the resolution of the above problems. At the same time, the practice of limited use of distance learning in conjunction with traditional, full-time education.
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