Introduction. Actuality of study. The aggravation of global problems has put for mankind a task of revealing of the optimal forms of existence of a modern civilisation. The expansion of the context of intercultural relations and their intensification demand correction of an emotional background on which interactions between the people are carried out .
The problem to develop the effective strategy of the settlement of international and intercivilizational oppositions between various cultural-confessional regions is especially actual in the context of geopolitical changes in «East – West» system.
Therefore, it is important to study the psychosemantic emotive field of co-operation of civilizational unities and cultural groups as global agents of interaction in the modern world. If this purpose will not be reached it will be absolutely impossible to develop fruitful strategy of management of regional and intercivilizational conflicts and their prevention. Thus the one of priority directions of humanitarian researches is creation of conceptually-practical base of formation of new positive outlook «for changes» which scientists and politicians so often discuss recently [3; 4].
The ideas about happiness as the major component of universal outlook have the important theoretical and practical value. Comprehension of this psychoemotional condition as existential-philosophical category, understanding of its inner meaning allows to accept this psychoemotional phenomenon as a subject of socially-philosophical and ethnopsychological research of happiness. From these positions it is possible to consider happiness as a vital core on which all inner world of the person keeps.
The desire to be happy, in particular in dialogue with other people is the primary purpose of ability to live of the person. Thus, the happiness acts as an emotional background of formation of social interaction’ attitudes at its various levels including international one’s. There are experimental data that really happy person is not inclined to aggression and various forms of display of animosities in interpersonal and intergroup dialogue.
Thus, inner content of happiness as an existential determinant of behaviour of both the separate person, and the whole people can be considered as the semantic quintessence of emotive discourse of intercultural relations as well as cultural hybridization.
In our research the attempt has been carried out to define whether there is a correlation between quality of subjective experience of happiness and the rational factors causing the algorithm of formation of target hierarchy in activity of individuals and sociocultural unity .
Methods and procedure of the investigation. Under this purpose we have applied an author’s questionnaire «Subjective experience of happiness» (English version is available at https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSd8BYCxb1SMTta65OSMaBkN5SlAgDEWo_-_vIMcsDzH3r8Hbg/viewform).
348 student of Crimean Federal V.I.Vernadsky University have taken part in research. 176 persons are Russians and 172 – Crimean Tatars. The age of participants of experiment is from 22 till 27 years, the duration of investigation is over the time of one year.
The choice of cultural accessories of respondents has been caused by our aspiration to find out presence or absence of significant similarity in emotional repertoire of the people which are traditionally positioned by Mass Media as civilizational opponents, like representatives of Slavic and Muslim cultures.
Thus comparative analysis has been carried out proceeding from actual precondition. If the accent has been made on distinctions between ethnocontact groups at earlier stages of development of ethnopsychology and cultural and political science’ investigations the present moment claims from social science the interest to similarity more and more.
The revealing of similarity/ distinction features in emotive discourse of various ethnocultural groups would allow to make a psychosemantic outline of the mentioned above interaction, in which one could clearly distinguish «favorable» zones of intercrossing of concrete culturally-semantic planes as well as «critical» and «crisis» points of sharp distinction. The creation of such «a polyhedron» of emotional interaction of ethnocultural groups is particularly urgent from both theoretical and practical point of view because emotive-cultural archetypes possess the properties of stability and unconsciousness which complicate their distinguishing and analyzing at everyday and social levels.
Studying of cultural codes of various civilizational and confessional unities will promote to revealing of new optimized possibilities of civilizational interactions in the conditions of the multipolar world. Investigating of modern experts’ opinions in the area of intercivilizational policy shows common point of view in aspect of search of innovative strategy of civilization process’ regulation which would consider not only distinctions in the content of interactive attitudes but also similarity of value orientation for development of various civilisations in post-informational epoch.
It is not necessary to refuse such favourable scenario of development only for the reason that its realisation is enough challenge. Our research of emotive archetypes as means of cultural hybridization and prevention of ethnic conflicts in interactive system «West – East» carried out on base Indiana of University  shows that representatives of various civilizational unities are quite ready to dialogue and cooperation.
Main results of the research. In men’s group 74% of Russian respondents and 87% of Crimean Tatars have positively answered a question whether predisposition to certain emotions influences ability of the person to be happy. Answers of women to this question are also mainly positive: 69% of Russian and 76% of Crimean Tatars have answered in the affirmative.
Respondents of the Russian and Crimean Tatar groups practically unanimously consider happiness as a reality and not just an ideal to which people aspire. And Crimean Tatars absolutely lead in the positive estimation of this fact (man: 100% of Crimean Tatars, 83% of Russian; women: 95% of Crimean Tatars, 89% of Russian). However under question: «Are you happy?» – less Russian and Ukrainians consider itself really happy (mans: 65% of Russian; women: 45%) in the situational leadership of the Crimean Tatars men and women (89% and 60% accordingly).
Under the interrogation factor «happiness as the purpose» at the answer to a question «Are you aspire to happiness or to maintenance of sensation of happiness?» – following results were received: absolute leadership was shown by Crimean Tatars also (the answer «Yes» has been received from 100% of respondents), while Russian respondents have shown considerably positive reaction by this criterion (43% of men, 52% of women).
Мuch more Crimean Tatar male respondents feel the ability to be happy despite adverse circumstances (92% of men) in comparison with Russian ones (64%). Women of both ethnocultural groups show much smaller resistibility to negative influence of an environment on the experience of happiness (72% of Crimean Tatars, 60% of Russian respondents).
More than that, in according to the analysis of answers to a question: «Are you aspire to happiness by all means?» – happiness achievement is not the major purpose of the majority of representatives of all national groups. Positive response has been received from 21% of male respondents and 35% of female respondents at Russian group and from 34% of men and 26% of women at Crimean Tatars. This is acknowledgement of natural perception of happiness in harmony with a complete estimation of a life.
Under a question: «Whether it is important for the person to maintain the basic ideas of a society to be happy?» – men and women of various ethnocultural and gender groups have answered differently. 85% of Russian respondents and 24% of Crimean Tatars at women group gave the negative answer. Only very few men deny importance of an involvement of the person in society affairs in the discourse of estimation of happiness’ level (28% of Russians, 15% of Crimean Tatars). Nevertheless, representatives of all ethnocultural and gender groups enough unanimously suggest that such involvement into a context of social activity does not promote real sensations of happiness (man: 74% of Russian, 62% of Crimean Tatars; women: 85% of Russians, 97% of Crimean Tatars).
Interesting results have been received at the analysis of experimental data under the factor «happiness and motherland». So, respondents of both ethnocultural groups have positively answered a question: «Whether the concept «happiness of the homeland» is significant for you even if it contradicts your own understanding of happiness?» However representatives of Russian group (man: 91% of Crimean Tatars and 70% of Russians; women: 62% of Crimean Tatars and 35% of Russians) considerably surpass of Americans in a percentage parity (63% of men and 46% of women). Here it is possible to ascertain a phenomenon of brighter display of cosmopolitism at the Russian group of respondents. Besides, in the answer to a question: «Are you ready to renounce the individual happiness if the happiness of your people (nation) depends on it?» – the percentage parity of respondents-men of both ethnocultural groups which have answered positively was practically equal (82% of Crimean Tatars, 75% of Russians) while Crimean Tatar woman absolutely lead in female group: 85% of Crimean Tatar women and just 12% of Russian women are ready to offer their happiness for the sake of the society blessing.
The factor «happiness in a struggle as an active vital position» reflects in the answers to a question: «Are you inclined to strive for happiness even if it contradicts the opinion of those who surround you?» – basically confirm results under the factor «happiness and the native land». So mainly positive answers are received (men: 79% of Crimean Tatars, 63% of Russians; women: 58% of Crimean Tatars, 89% of Russians).
Among women of both ethnocultural groups there are more respondents who consider that the sensation of happiness is connected with social success (85% of Russians, 69% of Crimean Tatars) while men concern it more sceptically (50% of Russians, 38% of Crimean Tatars).
According to the factor «happiness and gender» at the answer to a question: «Whether happiness depends on gender?» – mainly negative answers were received from respondents of all ethnocultural and gender groups (men: 100% of Russians and Crimean Tatars; women: 86% of Russians and 62% of Crimean Tatars). Nevertheless, at the answer to a question: «Whether women, as a rule, have more reasons to feel happy than men have?» – the majority of respondents have answered negatively again but less сonfident (men: 65% of Russians, 80% of Crimean Tatars; women: 72% of Russian respondents, 55% of Crimean Tatars).
According to the factor «happiness and ecology» (under a question: «Whether «your sensation of happiness strongly depends on quality of ecology?») it is revealed positive causal attribution (man: 75% of Russians, 68% of Crimean Tatars; women: 85% of Russians, 70% of Crimean Tatars).
Respondents of both ethnocultural groups practically unanimously specify in obvious dependence of happiness on the employment factor at the answer to a question: «Whether employed people are happier than the unemployed?». In the affirmative this question was answered with all men, 80% of Russian women and 65% of Crimean Tatars women.
From 75% to 95% of all respondents (fluctuations of percentage parities are insignificant) are firmly sure that the professional success is one of the basic criteria of happiness of the person.
Though many respondents seriously consider stability of a life as pledge of happiness the woman of both ethnocultural groups (94% of Russians, 89% of Crimean Tatars) pay more attention to this factor than men (60% of Russians, 48% of Crimean Tatars).
According to the analysis of factor «happiness and family» are received enough unexpected results. So the obvious disproportion in expectations and attitudes of men and women by this criterion is revealed. It is especially significant concerning the Russian group of respondents. So on a question: ‘Whether you consider family presence as a necessary condition of happiness?» – men and women of various national groups have answered differently. The answer «No» has been received in man’s group from 17% of Russians and 45% Crimean Tatars. In female group results are absolutely others: 94% of Crimean Tatars and 75% of Russians have answered positively.
According to a question: «Whether you consider the person having children is happier than childless?» – mainly positive answers have been received. Although the gender disproportion in emotive attitudes determined by this important for life-support criterion is revealed at Russian group: 70% of men and 58% of women gave negative response. While in Crimean Tatar group 37% of men and 12% women answered in the negative.
The high social status as rational determinant of happiness is more relevant for men of both ethnocultural groups in comparison with women (men: 95% of Crimean Tatars, 85% of Russians; women: 60% of Crimean Tatars, 72% of Russians).
However other respondents do not agree strongly that the social status significantly influences quality of the experience of happiness. It was revealed a maximum quantity of points on a scale of a negative estimation for all ethnocultural and gender groups.
Significant distinctions of influence of certain attitudes in particular propensities to conformism and self-determination on a social scale «individualism/collectivism» are revealed also in gender aspect. So in according to a question: «Whether you consider that individualists are happier than collectivists?» – men and women of Russian and Crimean Tatar groups have answered differently. The overwhelming quantity of Crimean Tatar men and women do not agree with such statement unlike respondents of Russian group: in Crimean Tatar group answered in the negative 85% of men and 80% of women, in comparison with Russians (45% of men and 62% of 50% of women).
Respondents of all experimental groups are practically unanimous in a choice of the affirmative answer to a question: «Whether you consider that Some norms of morality limit the potential a person to be happy?» (men: 95% of Russians and 90% of Crimean Tatars; women: 98% of Russians and 74% of Crimean Tatars).
Majority of Russian respondents consider that the happiness depends on rational satisfaction a life however Crimean Tatar respondents agreed with this maxim, almost considerably less (men: 75% of Russians and 58% of Crimean Tatars; women: 60% of Russians and 35% of Crimean Tatars).
Discussion. Significant distinctions and the similarity revealed as a result of questionnaire application «Subjective experience of happiness» testify that the emotive discourse of intercultural relations in many criteria-factors is determined by rational causal attribution of personal and globally social character. Therefore, algorithm of efficient control for cultural interactions necessary should to consider deep interrelation of rational and emotional components of «world pictures» and activity motivations of subjects of such interaction.
According to results of application of author’s questionnaire «Subjective experience of happiness» the overwhelming majority of respondents of both ethnocultural experimental groups captured by research prefer a policy of the harmonious neighbourhood and interaction based not on their aspiration to domination, but on intention to stability in sphere of social and natural ecology. Many respondents frankly notice that such preferences grow out not of high degree of altruism but «positive healthy egoism». Many respondents consider a problem of negative social displays in the sphere of civilization and cultural interactions is artificial «warmed up» on political level. The majority of respondents consider that stereotypes in relation to representatives of other civilisation, nation, nationality, ethnos are vestige of «cold war» period. In their opinion this problem can be solved in dialogue of ordinary people at the present stage of development of human community. Moreover, young men as the future leaders are sure that these stereotypes are peculiar to their generation in smaller degree than to generation of their parents.
All these data lead to a conclusion that time has come to form social technologies which would consider character of rationality and new quality of the emotive discourse of cultural interactions. Important problem is comprehension by national-political leaders of necessity to refuse from geopolitical rigidity and to consider modern realities. Even if scientists are capable to offer effective toolkit for the decision of some part of these problems politicians will tell last word. Probably it is the time to reconsider the traditional understanding of the scientific ethics interpreted as neutral «non-interference» to social problems but only their studying and estimation. Whether it is time for scientists to recruit actively ranks of positively conceiving politicians if destiny of the Earth it is not indifferent for them?
References1. Diener E., Tay L. Needs and Subjective Well-being around the World // Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2011, V. 101. N 2. P. 354–365.
2. Litvinchuk I.N. The notion of emotive archetype in the context of civilizational researches // Proceedings of SWorld conference: Perspective innovation in science’2014. Philosophy and Philology, Social Philosophy. 2014. Issue 6. – P. 72–84.
3. Mitchell K. Educating the National Citizen in Neoliberal Times: from the Multicultural Self to the Strategic Cosmopolitan // Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 2003, V. 28. – P. 387–403.
4. Reese G., Proch J., Finn C. Identification with All Humanity: The Role of selfinvestment and self-definition // European Journal of Social Psychology, 2015, V. 45. – P. 426–440.
5. Schwarts S. H., Sagiv I. Identifying Culture Specifics in the Content and Structure of Values // Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 1995, vol. 26, No 1. – P. 92–116.