One of the main trends in the development of information technologies at the moment is the implementation of cloud computing. The course «Cloud computing» is aimed at teaching students enrolled in the direction «Applied Informatics», used in the practice of teaching modern cloud computing technologies.
- Materials and methods
In the section «Theoretical Foundations of cloud computing» provides a definition of cloud computing technologies, and a classification of these technologies with explanations and examples are discussed modern trends in the field of computing.
The service-oriented architecture (SOA) has formed a basis of modern cloud computing service. The approach to development of the software based on services using with the standardized interfaces is understood as the service-oriented architecture .
«Cloud computing» is an alternative to the classical model of education. Computer infrastructure and information services are provided as a service «cloud» provider. The documents, programs, e-mails and other data involved in the educational process are stored on remote servers’ provider. At the same time there is no need for the institution include its own expensive IT-infrastructure and pay for computing resources, which in most cases are not used to full capacity.
Significant contribution to the study of cloud computing have D. Avresky, S. Ahson, B. Sosinsky, K. Hwang, G. Fox, V.P. Potapov, V.V. Gubarev. There are a variety of service models of cloud computing: model IaaS – Infrastructure as a Service, model PaaS – Platform as a Service and a model SaaS – Software as a Service.
Infrastructure as a Service. At this level, the user constructs his own IT-infrastructure into the cloud and operate it. For example, create virtual networks, adds virtual hardware (servers, storage, database), sets required to operate the application software and operating systems, ie. It uses a cloud as if it were a real IT-infrastructure of educational institution. IaaS-known solutions are: Google Compute Engine, Microsoft Azure, Amazon Cloud Formation.
Platform as a Service. If the basis of class IaaS cloud applications are virtualization technologies, the solutions of a class «Platform as a service» require additional tools to develop network applications with greater efficiency and lower cost, in addition to virtualization. Ways to improve the efficiency and reduce the cost of application development can be a lot, and the technology underlying the decisions PaaS, as are diverse . At this level, a provider of cloud services gives the user access to operating systems, data base management, development tools and testing. Thus, the consumer is able to cloud-based services and tools for self-build, test and operates the software. The entire information infrastructure (computer networks, servers and storage) managed by the provider. The most famous PaaS-services: Google App Engine (for software development languages Java, Python), Microsoft Azure (for ASP.NET, PHP), Cloud Foundry (programming languages Java, Ruby).
Software as a Service. At this level, provider allows users clouds software. All data is stored in the cloud, and to access them the user need only to have a web browser. This type of cloud computing does not require additional costs for installing and configuring the software. In most cases, payment for use of the software under SaaS is calculated based on the number of users and does not involve the so-called Enterprise-licenses allowing the use of a certain service for any number of users without any restrictions. Samples of free SaaS-solutions for educational institutions: Google Apps for Education and Microsoft Office 365 for education. It contains the functions of office package (work with documents, tablesheets, and presentations), means effective submission of information (in the form of presentations, videos) and communication (e-mail, instant messaging).
In recent years, attracted the most attention hybrid «clouds», Hybrid «clouds» are the introduction of a cloud computing, in which part of the system is placed in the public «cloud», ie, based on the data centers of cloud providers, and some – in a private «cloud», ie on servers owned by the company itself. In fact, hybrid «cloud» is not an independent type of cloud deployments, but only points to the close integration of public and private cloud systems .
In recent years, major cloud companies are actively rebuild its strategy with the «hybridization» of cloud computing. For example, Amazon Web Services is planning to develop not only by building their own services, but also by creating a community partners and vendors, the services that will be integrated with the cloud-based platform from Amazon . Microsoft is moving toward a hybrid model more consistent, which cloud strategy involves the possibility of placing computing power of choice: in your own site, in a public «cloud» or a service provider. Therefore, Microsoft allows you to combine elements of public and private «clouds» in those ratios, which are most convenient for the company. Under this strategy, Microsoft has recently added the ability to own premises generated virtual machine in the «cloud» Microsoft Azure .
In the «Basics of cloud services» provides an overview of the most popular cloud services technologies, are examples of popular cloud storage services.
Today on the Internet there are many free services cloud storage. Each of others are offering the possibility for storage of any type, from office documents and ending with multimedia information. Nearly all of the providers of these services offer the following services for free: the amount of free storage; automatic synchronization of data stored across all the devices that are connected to cloud services; security of storage in the «cloud»; the possibility of public access through the Internet to files stored in the cloud, to any person; data reliability.
In the «Choice of cloud services and the associated risks» provides guidance on the use of cloud services. Also explains the advantages and disadvantages of this approach, highlights issues of organizational and legal changes that may occur as a result of the implementation of cloud technologies in the educational process.
The use of cloud computing in the field of education has the following advantages: cost-effectiveness, scalability, availability, meeting the needs of users, reducing the impact on the environment («green» technology).
Recommendations regarding the selection of the service provider share the following areas: functionality, platform, technical features, convenience and accessibility for users, contract costs.
Students also learn the basics of MOODLE in the cloud and create a teacher-led training courses and place them in a special cloud. For example, in the cloud material is presented on the following topics of the course «Computer systems, networks and telecommunications», «Overview of computer systems, networks and telecommunications. Classification of computer systems», «Physical fundamentals of computing processes», «Fundamentals of construction and operation of computers», «Functional and structural organization of the computer», «Features of the functioning and organization of computers of different classes», «Classification and architecture of computer networks», «The structure and characteristics of telecommunication systems», «Telecommunication systems», «Design of Computer Networks», «IP-telephony over computer networks», «Firewall», «The effectiveness of the networks and their development prospects». The educational complex theoretical information is represented on the design of computer networks and laboratory work. Also the analysis of the organizational and legal consequences of the use of cloud services is carried. Under the guidance of a teacher, students make a list of organizational and legal changes that would need to do in the work of educational institutions [2; 3; 5].
- Results and Discussion
Cloud computing – software and hardware, is available to users via the Internet or LAN as a service. Cloud computing can reduce the complexity of IT systems, through the use of a wide range of effective technologies, managed independently and available on-demand within a virtual infrastructure.
References1. Облачные сервисы. Взгляд из России / Под ред. Е.Гребнева. – М.: CNews, 2011. – 282 с.
2. Ziangirova L.F. Distance courses on the subject "Management of information projects" based on technology MOODLE, International Journal of Professional Science, 2016, No. 1, pp. 75-85.
3. Зиангирова Л.Ф. Методика изучения темы «Проектирование компьютерных сетей» при обучении студентов по направлению подготовки «Прикладная информатика» // Информатика и образование. – 2014. – №9 (258). – С. 58-59.
4. Зиангирова Л.Ф. Технологии облачных вычислений: учебное пособие. – Саратов: Вузовское образование, 2016. – С. – 300 c. – Режим доступа: http://www.iprbookshop.ru/41948
5. Зиангирова Л.Ф. Вычислительные системы, сети и телекоммуникации: учебно-методическое пособие. – Саратов: Вузовское образование, 2015. – 150 c. – Режим доступа: http://www.iprbookshop.ru/31942