Semantic recognition in the process of perception of the speaker’s speech information allows to identify the most important objects of the author’s semantic attention in the process of creating an utterance by him, which significantly brings us closer to understanding the author’s intentions and exclusively affects the decision on the options for responding to the utterance. In this regard, I would like to recall the word «modality».
The encyclopedic dictionary defines the following character:
- Modality, a language category expressing the speaker’s attitude of his utterance to reality.
- Modality in a sentence can be indicated by various forms of verb mood and intonation, as well as particles, adverbs, introductory words, introductory sentences, in some languages and special verbs. For example, «you should have gone home», «everything seemed to be quiet around», «I almost fell», «according to him, he is busy».
- The modality of a judgment is the belonging of a judgment to the number of necessary or probable. According to the degree of modality , judgments are distinguished:
- an apodictic judgment that expresses a certain regularity that excludes any other possibility, for example, «the sum of the angles of a triangle is equal to two right angles»;
- an assertive judgment that asserts the presence or absence of a certain fact, for example, «this angle is straight»;
- a problematic judgment is a type of judgment in which the probability or possibility of the presence or absence of a property expressed by a predicate is expressed, for example, «it will probably rain tomorrow».
A word in speech communication is a free molecule that has its own intrinsically basic meaning that is unchanged in the grammar system of a given language. It moves freely from one set of words in which it is included to another set of words in which it is included again, and so on indefinitely. The semantic essence of a word is determined by its individual position in the semantic system of the language in such a way as to be recognizable.
Turning to V.V. Vinogradov, we recall that in the culture of any language, «a word is taken as a norm, freely moving from one verbal environment to another, in the totality of its basic forms and meanings. It is necessary to distinguish its use from the meanings of the word. The values are stable and common to everyone who knows the language system. Usage is only a possible application of one of the meanings of a word, sometimes very individual, sometimes more or less common. The use is not equivalent to the meaning, and there are many semantic possibilities of the word hidden in it. However, for grammatical teaching about the word, this general outline of the semantic structure of the word is sufficient. It is only necessary to supplement it with a description of the types of stable word combinations, which are located next to the word, as semantic units of a more complex order, equivalent to the word.»
As scientists from Kyoto University (Japan) explained, an artificial intelligence algorithm called Stable Diffusion «interprets not only activity in the «visual» part responsible for the perception of shape and color, but also processes in the neighboring «semantic» area of the brain, where the visual cortex meets the auditory cortex and where the meanings of words are encoded». The words used in this message, namely:
- «semantic zone of the brain»;
- «the auditory zone, where the meanings of words are encoded,» confirm the complexity of thought processes in the brain’s own information space, which ensure continuous scanning and words in the process of speech communication, as well as their practical recognition.
The perception in the brain’s own information space of the sound of the «word» in an utterance, the image of the «word» in a written message is actually a process of scanning by the brain of what we call the «word», and converting the «word» into a form convenient for the brain for further, of course, repeated use, just such a form of this «the words» in speech communication, or rather, the use in thought processes is exclusive only of «that» essence, only of «that» meaning that the brain has managed to acquire in the process of scanning what we call a «word» in the grammar of the language.
The word, after its physical perception, brain scanning, transformation into a semantic copy, is somewhere constantly in its primary environment, which forms its internally unchanging meaning and the most common variants of its application (use). Then, according to the requirements of speech communication, the word is repeatedly and repeatedly scanned by the brain and placed next to other words or in the midst of other words, near or far, or very far from the primary native, recognizable, native, significant environment.
V.V. Vinogradov notes that «the subject-logical meaning of each word is surrounded by a special expressive atmosphere, fluctuating depending on the context. Expressive power is inherent in the sounds of the word and their various combinations, morphemes and their combinations, lexical meanings. The word is in continuous connection with its entire intellectual and emotional life. The word is both a sign of the speaker’s thought and a sign of all other mental experiences included in the task and intent of the message.» «Different forms of a well-known word, continues V.V. Vinogradov, are not formed at all from one another, but simply coexist. Of course, a psychic connection is established between them, and they condition each other and thereby cause each other’s associations.»
He notes that «the stylistic essence of a word is determined by its individual position in the semantic system of the language, in the circle of its functional and genre varieties (written language, oral language, their types, the language of fiction, you can add from the author — «subject and figuratively concise poetic language»).
The applied significance of V.V. Vinogradov’s conclusions is limitless and, in fact, is a system for protecting the natural national language. In the process of creating utterances and written messages in the brain’s own information space:
- if the words of the environment are close to this word, then immediately there is a composition «Meaning-Image-Context» of the text with the participation of this word;
- if the words of the environment are far away, then the composition «Meaning-Image-Context» of the text also arises, but it does not become stable, and there is a clear dominance of one of the components of the composition, respectively, or «meaning», or «image», or «context»;
- if the words of the environment are very far from this word, then it is impossible to create a «Meaning-Image-Context» composition of the text with the participation of this word, and this, in turn, means that the functional purpose of creating a text with the participation of this word has not been achieved. And then, the brain destroys this unsuccessfully created prototype of an utterance or written message, and turns on the thought mechanisms again to search and scan other words.
Today we can confidently say that the development of speech, especially at the level of its applied use, is moving towards self-organization of external, in relation to the brain, and internal semantic information in the process of its multiplicity of scanning, copying, «recognition». When creating the text of an utterance or a written message, the semantic meanings of words are scanned in a closed circle from the «Idea of the idea» of the utterance to the «Implementation plan» of the utterance. The sizes of word search cycles by semantic scanning are infinite. However, the closed perimeter of the specific needs of semantic scanning may be quite finite or even very small. For example, it concerns:
- creating an utterance when the brain scans words in a circle from the «Idea of the idea» to the «Realized idea» occurs in 3-7 seconds;
- creating a composition «Meaning-Image-Context» when the brain scans words in a circle «meaning-image-context» occurs in 9-21 seconds;
- choosing the answer «yes» or «no» to a question during polygraph testing, when the brain scans words from the text of a given question in a circle «yes-no-yes-no» in search of the most comfortable answer, proceeds in a short time allowed by the polygraph operator.
In today’s extreme conditions of information turnover, in a mantic frenzied sea, simultaneous perception of a large amount of information and instant response to it, two words «attention» and «recognition» took the leading positions of influence on authors and users. Today, these words have become key to the survival of the human brain in the ongoing information revolution.
During the implementation of speech activity in the brain’s own information space, competition between information chaos and semantic order arises not only between the words used, but also at the level of thought process management, namely, the struggle for dominance in each subsequent stage of the creation and exchange of statements between the behavioral personality of a person and the semantic personality of a person:
The volume of recognition of keywords in the text of the perceived statement is equal to the volume of the author’s attention to the functional activity of the composition «Meaning-Image-Context» of this statement.
The interest in the word «recognition», as well as the influence of this word on the intensity of speech communication, are rapidly increasing. David Lykken, a world-famous expert in the field of lie detection, came up with a method of testing for the detection of lies, which he called the «Guilty Knowledge Test».
In his detective story, David Lykken explains: «Whoever killed these two women knows in detail what happened here last night. He knows what he was doing in this house, where he left the bodies, what they looked like when he left them here. If he entered the house right now, he would not see anything that could surprise him – everything would correspond to the impressions that remained in his memory when he left the house last night, and these should be quite vivid impressions. Fortunately, we have a method, a kind of lie detector variant, which allows us to determine what impressions have been preserved in a person’s memory… If a person learns the true facts, our device will show it, and we will know that we have the right person in our hands» (suspect).
Currently, the influence of the word «recognition» is becoming enormous. Te-le-radio-Internet broadcasting, the updating of «news» and their suicidal competition, the intensity of the disparaging use of language in mobile means of communication, indifference to opinions and answers that have not even been expressed yet, etc., leads to the fact that almost any words are replaced by speech in the texts it creates where anything, in violation of the rules, norms and customs of natural language. As a result, the main and primary task of the brain in the perception of deformed, as if after a nuclear explosion, natural speech, becomes the «recognition» of the word in the most unthinkable semantic places of its stay, in the most contradictory versions of its environment in other words.
In the modern pace of speech communication and the information cycle, the time allotted to the brain to perceive the information being communicated and the ability to respond to it within its own life cycle is rapidly moving to zero, after which the need for such information itself and for responding to it disappears.
Gradually, the semantic specialization of words such as «assessment», «reliability», «accuracy», «understanding», «use», «application», «lack of clarity», «lie», etc., rapidly moves to the word «recognition» and are absorbed by it.
«Recognition» becomes the most important center of perception of utterances, messages, images in the human brain’s own information space and has a decisive, one might even say, priority psycho-physiological influence on the brain’s decision-making in terms of response, practically to information of any form and any degree of semantic ordering.
Each person is capable of implementing speech communication, conducting conversations, because he has his own information space of the brain, the ability to think, to approach with the help of recognizing his feelings and perception to the objective reality of what statements and written messages display in words.
And, of course, the most interesting task for the brain in speech communication is to understand how the revelations of the interlocutor mask his intentions.
References1. Энциклопедический словарь (главный редактор Б.А. Введенский). Государственное научное издательство «Большая советская энциклопедия», М., 1953-1955 г.
2. В.В. Виноградов. Русский язык (грамматическое учение о слове), издательство «Высшая школа», М., 1972 г.
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4. Пронькин, Н. Н. Разговаривают люди, но общаются их высказывания. От намерений к договоренности / Н. Н. Пронькин, А. И. Симаков // . – 2020. – № 6. – С. 38-44. – EDN LNLWVQ.
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6. Медиа поток, в университете Киото создали нейросеть Stable Diffusion для чтения мыслей, 2023 г.