The influence of monologic and dialogic speech on the formation of linguo-communicative culture

UDC 81
Publication date: 20.06.2024
International Journal of Professional Science №6-1-2024

The influence of monologic and dialogic speech on the formation of linguo-communicative culture

Lashina Ekaterina N.
Senior Lecturer of the Department of Foreign Languages,
St. Petersburg State University of Industrial Technology and Design.
Higher School of Technology and Energy

Abstract: Monologic and dialogic speech constitute the student’s verbal activity. When teaching a foreign language, the teacher must take into account the characteristics of both types of speech. The article examines the influence of these types of speech on the formation and improvement of linguo-communicative culture.
Keywords: monologic speech, dialogic speech, linguo-communicative culture, foreign language, study, verbal activity.

Linguo-communicative culture is a general cultural competence that ensures the successful professional activity of a specialist and acquires value as an aspect of the content of education. In modern pedagogical research, linguo-communicative culture is considered as an integrative personal education that contributes to the development of a linguistic personality and its entry into the global professional community [1]. Linguo-communicative culture ensures the construction of verbal statements in accordance with orthoepic, morphological, lexical, grammatical and other norms of the literary language for optimal solution of problems of business and professional communication [2].

All manifestations of human life, everything that has meaning and significance, permeate dialogic relationships. A person is able to open himself, open spaces for his own thoughts and actions, become a linguo-communicative personality if he is ready for joint reflection, if he masters monologic and dialogic forms of verbal activity, takes into account the nature of their manifestations and their relationship in the formation of linguo-communicative culture. Verbal activity itself determines subject positions in the educational process, which raises the question of the relationship between monologic and dialogic speech in the formation of linguo-communicative culture.

Monologic verbal activity is always motivated, has an idea and a clear plan, which are not given in finished form, but are consistently developed. The monologue conveys information and provides justification for the requirement. The monologue uses grammatically incomplete and detailed grammatical structures. Incompleteness can be filled in by non-verbal means. Monologic speech contains a verbal formulation of the information being transmitted, since it does not presuppose an obligatory interlocutor or knowledge of the situation.

Monologic speech of students must correspond to such characteristics as coherence/structure, logic, continuity, expressiveness and completeness [3]. Means of interphrase communication serve to link the individual components of a monologue utterance.

External coherence is ensured by using the following means of interphrase communication:

1) chains of keywords and phrases;

2) the assignment of pronouns to one referent;

3) parallel grammatical constructions;

4) transitional words and expressions;

5) means of ensuring the actual division of the proposal.

Thus, a monologue utterance, which has the above characteristics of monologic speech, logically moves from thought to thought, ensuring the gradual implementation of the assigned speech task [4].

In the classroom, the monologic form of verbal activity is mainly the prerogative of the teacher: he presents the material at length, draws conclusions, and summarizes the collective discussion. Students at this time accumulate meaningful and functional experience through the perception of his speech, its meaning and content. The monologic form of students’ verbal activity is given somewhat less space. Not all students are always involved in this form in the classroom, and not all of them have experience in operating with the possibilities of verbal activity. Thus, this phenomenon may be negative. When forming a linguo-communicative culture, it is necessary to intensify the verbal activity of students as much as possible and devote more time to their speech in class. The monologic form helps students practice using such qualities as consistency, logic of presentation, laconicism, and the use of emotional techniques that influence listeners. The verbal activity of all students should be intensified, but especially those who are least involved in this form of verbal activity.

The characteristics of monologic speech are the opposite of those of dialogic speech.

Dialogic speech is a process of communication that is characterized by alternating remarks from two or more persons. Psychologists include, first of all, the speech-thinking activity of partners among the psychological characteristics of dialogic speech. The dialogue is based on replication, i.e., exchange of remarks. Since each interlocutor can act as a listener and speaker, dialogic speech is a receptive-productive type of speech activity. In live dialogic speech, the exchange of remarks occurs quickly, hence the lack of preparation and spontaneity of dialogic speech, which requires high automation and readiness of the language material. The most important psychological feature of dialogic speech is its situational nature, which determines the nature of the partners’ speech behavior and the linguistic design of speech. The dialogic form of communication involves the widespread use of extralinguistic means (facial expressions, gestures, etc.). As already noted, the dialogue is based on a replica; it is the elementary structural unit of dialogic speech. But the main, initial structural unit of learning is considered to be a dialogic unity formed by a pair of cues, one of which is a stimulus cue, the other is a response cue. The methods of combining (linking) replicas can be different; they form the basis of the functional typology of dialogic unities [5]:

  • question – answer;
  • message – question;
  • message – response message;
  • invitation (request) – agreement (disagreement);
  • message (order, request) – emotional reaction;
  • request – message.

These types of dialogic speech determine the types of dialogues, among which the main ones included in the school curriculum are:

  • dialogue – one-sided questioning (such as an interview);
  • dialogue – two-way questioning;
  • dialogue – exchange of opinions.

Dialogic speech is the primary, natural form of linguistic communication. Since an extensive dialogue involves active discussion, the expression of different points of view, elements of discussion, it is obvious that the dialogic form includes students to a greater extent in the activity, which is a primary task for the teacher.

The teacher uses the following functions in the dialogue:

1) cognitive (reflections),

2) informative (messages, expressions),

3) value-semantic,

4) linguo-communicative (impact),

5) stimulating.

It should be said that in the real pedagogical process these functions are not isolated in the teacher’s speech, they are interconnected and can transform into one another, constituting the unity necessary for the professional qualities of the teacher. It is the implementation of these functions that creates the information and communication field, to which everyone is involved either as a listener or as a speaker.

Speech practice in dialogic form is not the same for all students. In active and strong students, it is naturally larger and more productive; in weaker students it is less, which does not contribute to their success and orientation in verbal activity. The advantage in this form often belongs to the teacher, who asks questions, comments at length on the students’ answers, and adds, pushing the boundaries of the answer, expanding the circle of knowledge. This is completely legitimate; however, one should not forget about the main goal of the teacher’s verbal activity – to activate students, creating situations in which they could not only answer his questions, but also fully use their capabilities of verbal expression, determine the strength of their verbal impact on others. Such activity brings the student closer to the position of a subject making independent decisions. That is why, in a dialogic form, students’ questions addressed to both the teacher and fellow students are so significant. The form of questions (“Confirm”, “Prove”, “Compare”, “Define”, “Can you express?”, “Express your point of view”, etc.), not allowing monosyllabic answers, encourages the student to search for an adequate content and verbal means. The form of student responses, prompted by similar questions (“I believe”, “I can give the following evidence”, “I have a different point of view”, “I do not agree with this statement”), teaches speech culture. These questions, as a manifestation of active verbal activity of students, can be used to stimulate their verbal and intellectual development, because often, such questions encourage students to think and actively search for the missing link in their knowledge.

The dialogic form cannot be simplified into a question-and-answer form, when the teacher asks a question and the student answers it. The essence of dialogic communication is much deeper; the goals of its participants are not always clearly defined, when the teacher only provides feedback and the student tests his knowledge. The teacher sets more significant goals – to reveal the student’s capabilities, help him penetrate into essential connections, and understand the patterns of phenomena and processes. The student, in turn, may be guided by the desire to assert himself, express himself, confirm his decision, and sometimes simply understand what he is capable of. In the dialogue between the teacher and students, it is necessary to understand what task is set by the teacher, how the students solve it, and what is the motivation for their actions. Depending on the essence of the tasks and the level of their solution, the degree of influence of dialogue on the development of students’ cognitive interests, their linguo-communicative culture, and their personality should be assessed.

Thus, participation in monologic and dialogic forms of verbal activity contributes to the development of students:

  • critical, reflective and creative thinking necessary in formulating, defining, justifying and analyzing the thoughts and ideas discussed;
  • public speaking skills;
  • research skills (the arguments presented require evidence and examples, the search for which requires working with sources of information);
  • organizational skills;
  • listening and note-taking skills.

Correct use of the ratio of forms of verbal activity contributes to the formation of the student’s subjective position, the development of the cognitive aspect and the aspect of communication in verbal activity, the formation and improvement of linguistic-communicative culture.


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