Active methods of training in practical classes in a medical university

UDC 61(07)
Publication date: 22.04.2024
International Journal of Professional Science №4-1-2024

Active methods of training in practical classes in a medical university

Zhupenova D.E., Turlybekova S.A., Kenzhetaeva T.A., Akhaeva A.S., Skosarev I.A., Kysabekova A.B. Zhumagulova S.E.

Karaganda, Kazakhstan
Abstract: The experience of introducing the CBL and T BL method into the educational process is described. Active learning methods develop communication skills and teamwork skills.
Keywords: Active learning methods, CBL, T BL, innovative technology, medical education.

In modern conditions of reforming the medical education system, the use of active forms of learning is becoming a mandatory part of the educational process of creating a competitive specialist based on modern innovative teaching methods. Modern teaching technologies are focused on a personal-active approach to education. [1,2].

Nowadays, training in the medical profession is becoming increasingly complex. The rapid development of diagnostic and treatment technologies, constant updating of scientific information, and the emergence of new information lead to the fact that simply mastering certain theoretical and practical knowledge is not enough for a young specialist [3]. In addition, today there is a constant increase in the volume of medical information, updating existing data, often with a revision of points of view. The specialty of a doctor implies constant growth and development. In this regard, there is a growing need for the introduction of innovative educational technologies that allow students not only to master certain knowledge, but also to improve their skills in obtaining and processing large amounts of information, to develop students’ analytical thinking and the ability to quickly make the right decisions. [4]

Active learning methods CBL and TBL allow students not only to master certain knowledge, but also to improve their skills in obtaining and processing large amounts of information, to develop students’ analytical thinking and the ability to quickly make the right decisions. The student must develop a wide range of intellectual, visual and practical skills, taking into account a large amount of factual information and practical manipulations [5]. In addition to studying traditional educational literature and listening to lectures, it is necessary to develop analytical thinking, teamwork skills, and also increase student motivation [6]. One of the ways to achieve these goals in addition to traditional teaching methods is the development and implementation of CBL and TBL [7,8].

              The use of active forms of learning in teaching medical disciplines is due to the fact that students must not only obtain certain knowledge, but also be able to apply it in a specific practical situation. These methods promote active interaction between students and teachers.

The goal of introducing active teaching methods at the Department of Pediatrics and Neontology was to train a competitive specialist with high professional competence, providing quality medical care.

The share of practical classes for 4th year students of the specialty “General Medicine” in the discipline “Pathology of Young Children and Adolescence” with active teaching methods (CBL and TBL) during classes was 8 (50%) out of 16 discipline topics, of which 4 topics are studied using the CBL method (25%), 4 — using the TBL method (25%).

Modern innovative teaching methods are the TBL method (Team‐based learning). Team-oriented teaching method, or team training (Team Based Learning — TBL) is a teaching method that allows students to develop teamwork and communication skills.

TBL includes the following principles: 1. Well-formed and managed teams. 2. Student assessment. 3. Team assignments to stimulate learning, group interaction and team self-improvement. 4. Frequent and immediate feedback to students. One of the main conditions of team learning (TBL) is the application of knowledge by students to solve problems through group discussion and the implementation of direct feedback during the teaching process [9].

At the beginning of the lesson, it is necessary to familiarize students with the purpose and objectives of the lesson using the TBL method, the team learning methodology, and talk about the features of assessing students’ knowledge. The composition of the team must be unchanged; the formation of the team must be carried out by random sampling. Conducting individual and team testing with subsequent discussion of its results. There should be a brief discussion of the most difficult testing questions. The task or task must be the same for all teams. Inter- and intra-team discussion during assignments provides the opportunity to obtain information for feedback. When assigning a final grade to students, it is advisable to use criteria for monitoring the ability to work in a team and provide feedback on the work of each small group.

Thus, one of the key moments of TBL is practically realized — the student’s shift from a passive listener to an active team member when solving a problem. This is one of the advantages of the TBL method over traditional teaching methods. Students use knowledge to solve problematic problems. Thus, the proposed form of conducting a seminar lesson allows us to focus on learning in small groups, where students do individual work before classes, and team work is done during classes. [ 10,12].

The significance of the TBL lesson comes down to the fact that the joint work of students stimulates in all members of the subgroup during a general discussion, on the one hand, interest in the issue being studied, on the other hand, it increases the responsibility of all students of the subgroup for the overall result. At the end of the lesson, students are given one grade per subgroup, although the final result varies depending on test scores.

Conducting practical classes using the TBL method promotes high-quality learning of the material, the development of analytical thinking, and the formation of such social skills as interaction and communication skills in a team.

CBL is an educational perspective in which students develop research potential, strategy and capabilities. Modeling professional situations through cases allows the student not only to solve a problem, but also to develop tactics of behavior in the proposed circumstances, predict the further development of the situation, determine the ability to work in a team, the ability to express their own views on a problem, conduct a discussion or dispute. This requires applying theoretical knowledge to solve a practical problem.

CBL (team-oriented education) is a method of analyzing situations, it is a method of situational learning [11].

For CBL, special situational tasks have been developed based on theoretical and practical material (the topic of the practical lesson and a list of practical skills provided by the training program). In the process of solving these problems, students learn to work in a team (analogous to consultations in practical healthcare), analyze the situation (make a diagnosis, carry out a differentiated diagnosis, select the necessary diagnostic methods to confirm or refute the diagnosis) and, as a result of the situation, choose the correct method of treatment, having analyzed each proposal.

When assessing a student, feedback plays an important role. BL (case-based learning) is an educational technology that allows the learner to apply acquired knowledge to solve a specific relevant clinical problem. The lesson plan consists of the following stages: at the beginning of the lesson, it is necessary to familiarize students with the purpose and objectives of the lesson, explain the form of the lesson, the methodology of working in a team and the criteria for assessing their knowledge, depending on the ability to work in a team. The formation of the team should be carried out by random sampling. The composition of the team must remain unchanged until the end of the lesson. Tasks or clinical cases in teams should be different in content, but of equal complexity and clearly correspond to the goals and objectives of the lesson. The task/case discussion should begin and end at the same time, allowing the teams’ decision-making process and its effectiveness to be assessed and compared.

When assigning a final grade to students, it is advisable to use criteria for monitoring the ability to work in a team.

Before the lesson, we conduct testing, the group of students is divided into subgroups of 4-5 people, the conditions of the clinical case and the list of questions are distributed to each subgroup on a separate sheet.

We found that working in small groups with a discussion of a clinical case has a positive effect on the microclimate and relationships of students in groups. When surveying students, 95% of students noted that the use of modern active teaching methods develops skills in solving certain problems, increases the level of analytical thinking, 81% of students noted that active teaching methods help in mastering the material, 67% noted that it helps to connect theory and practice, 53% of students indicated that it stimulates communication skills and teamwork.

Thus, it can be concluded that the use of active learning methods in medical education has a positive impact on the development of important medical competencies, especially their social and cognitive aspects. Communication skills and teamwork skills are developed. The level of clinical thinking increases, the cognitive activity of students improves in conditions of independent work. Students develop empathy , the microclimate in the student group improves, and a friendly, respectful attitude towards each other is noted. The work of the faculty of the department is intensifying to systematically improve professional and pedagogical qualifications for the widespread introduction of competencies into the educational process of medical specialties.


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