Today, for the time being, the disposal of household and industrial waste is a valid environmental issue.
In the reason for the exponential growth of urbanization and industrialization, the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) is increasing rapidly. In addition, disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) is becoming a frequently serious obstacle for many urban municipalities because of the increasing volume of generated municipal solid waste, increasing costs of landfill operations or due to a lack of landfills. Every year, land plots are allocated for the storage of household and industrial waste, which can be used for agricultural land, as well as for the constructions. With increasing awareness of the environment andits potentially hazardous consequences, the use of these materials has become an attractive option of recycling alternative. The use of various wastes for these purposes is a practical implementation of the concept of industrial metabolism, which consists in the use of waste from one industry as a raw material for another.
The main guiding principle of SWM is the rule of 3R’s (waste reduction, reuse and recycling), which gradually began to be carried out starting from the 20th century in EU countries . The waste management system was first developed in the EU countries, due to the early and rapid development of the economy, the lack of resources and irrational usage of an area in numerous European countries [2,3]. The way to manage above-mentioned types of waste includes landfilling, composting, incineration, etc.
Fig. 1 reveals that landfill was the dominant SWM method in 1995 in these countries, but this figure has been steadily declining since then, while incineration and waste packaging in the waste management process increases dramatically with significant increases in waste recycling. .