Fraud in the field of lending: features of criminal proceedings

UDC 343
Publication date: 30.11.2019
International Journal of Professional Science №11-2019

Fraud in the field of lending: features of criminal proceedings

Rusanov Mikhail Sergeevich
Klochikhin Vyacheslav Anatolyevich

1. candidate of economic Sciences, associate Professor of the Department of organization of financial, economic, logistical and medical support of the Academy of management of the Ministry of internal Affairs of Russia
2. senior lecturer of the Department of organization of financial, economic, logistical and medical support of the Academy of management of the Ministry of internal Affairs of Russia
Abstract: The article deals with the issues of fraudulent transactions carried out in the process of lending to the population and legal entities. Special attention is paid to the impact of fraud in the field of lending on the economic security of the state as a whole and its financial and credit system. In addition, the mechanisms of bringing to justice persons who committed fraudulent actions in the field of lending are considered in detail.
Keywords: credit operations, financial system, fraud, criminal prosecution

The main segments of the country’s financial security include the credit and banking Fund [11,12]. Meanwhile, the credit system remains the most vulnerable to criminal attacks and at the same time one of the most complex and knowledge-intensive areas of investigation [13,14]. In response to the violation of economic relations, the legislator, to protect the interests of the banks that have suffered from fraud in lending, has posted Chapter 21 of the Criminal code of the Russian Federation «Crimes against property» article 159 of the criminal code «Fraud in lending» [7,8].

According to the data provided on the official website of the Judicial Department of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, the number of convicts for crimes committed in the field of lending for six years is quite stable. For example, in 2013, 2635 persons were convicted, in 2014 – 3249, in 2015 – 2074, in 2016 – 1722, in 2017 – 2382, in 2018 – 2476 persons [5].

The analysis of criminal cases showed that in some cases, when a criminal case is initiated, investigators or interrogators mistakenly qualify a crime under article 1591 of the criminal code, based on the fact that all crimes committed in the field of lending should be attributed to a special norm, and not to the General one. However, the first paragraph of paragraph 14 Of the resolution of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation No. 48 «on judicial practice in cases of fraud, embezzlement and embezzlement» provides explanations about the correct qualification of the analyzed crimes committed by falsifying the personal data of the borrower. These crimes should be qualified according to the General norm providing responsibility for fraud [2, p. 35].

At the stage of initiation of a criminal case, we have to face situations when there are facts of partial repayment of the loan, and then the attackers stop paying. However, such situations do not indicate the absence of intent to steal credit funds, and require careful verification.

On the intent shown by the following circumstances:

1) the absence of a real possibility of fulfillment of the obligations assumed in accordance with the loan agreement;

2) concealment of information about the presence of accounts payable, dismissal from work, lack of ownership of the mortgaged property;

3) non-payment of monthly payments;

4) evasion of obligations under the loan by providing false documents (fictitious payment documents, forged bills);

5) expenditure of credit funds for the acquisition of material assets not related to the purposes of lending;

6) change of residence, etc. [1, p. 126]

Guilty persons, when committing crimes in the field of lending, use the Internet to carry out criminal intentions. For example, N. committed fraud in the field of lending, placing on the Internet site «Bank» application on his behalf for a loan, making it deliberately false and inaccurate information about the place of work in LLC » A » and the place of registration in Moscow. By results of remote check on the basis of the presented Data. the lender false information, approved a loan submitted by cash advance from cash received cash in the amount of *** RUB *** COP. and together with stolen from the crime scene disappeared, i.e., has committed a crime under part 1 of article 159 of the criminal code [6].

At the stage of initiation of a criminal case, not all circumstances are subject to proof, but only those data that are of key importance in the Commission of a crime. Thus to the investigator and the interrogator it is necessary to carry out certain checking and investigative actions to collect enough factual data which in the subsequent, at initiation of criminal case, can become proofs, and are attached to materials of criminal case [2, p. 325].

A properly chosen system of verification and investigation of material verification of fraud in lending is helping to come to a successful result of the crime and bring the perpetrators to criminal liability, and to prevent violations of public interests in the sphere of economy.

Among the most common actions you can specify:

— survey of the borrower about the circumstances of obtaining a loan and spending money, about his personality, sources of income, financial situation, previously issued loans and other financial obligations, the availability of property, the facts of acquisition of movable and immovable property, etc.;

— receiving explanations of officials of the creditor about circumstances of registration of the application and the conclusion of the credit agreement, receipt of means by the borrower, performance of obligations under the credit agreement of the credit, the size of the caused damage [3, p. 78];

— inspection of the scene (office of a Bank or other credit institution); — Protocol of inspection of objects and documents;

— personal inspection of the borrower;

— realization of research;

— reclamation and seizure of documents (credit case, contract, loan application, borrower questionnaire, reference 2-personal income tax, cash flow order, copies of passport, work book, license for banking operations, certificate of damage caused to the lender, etc.) [4, p. 19; 10, p. 92-94].

If you check the message about the crime of fraud in lending, there is close interaction between the investigator or the investigator with the staff of the body of inquiry, which accompany the material. In the presence of sufficient data indicating the signs of a crime under article 159.1 of the criminal code, contained in the material of the audit, a criminal procedural decision is made to initiate or refuse to initiate a criminal case on the fact of fraud in the field of lending.


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