One of the important problems of developmental and educational psychology is in describing the characteristics of strategies used by primary schoolchildren when solving problems of a search nature. This refers to strategies based on different approaches to solving problems — empirical, associated with a situational, non-generalized understanding of the subject content of problems, and theoretical, associated with a generalized understanding.
In solving this problem in theoretical terms, we relied on the above-mentioned approaches developed in Russian psychology, which were generally proposed by S.L. Rubinstein  and further specified in the studies of V.V. Davydov  and his followers [ 1, 3 ]. In the experimental plan, we relied on the characteristics of a two-part experimental situation that we developed (see, for example, ), related to solving problems (the first part) and their generalization (the second part).
The general goal of this study was, therefore, to establish the distribution in the mental activity of junior schoolchildren when solving problems of strategies that are manifested in the implementation of the above-mentioned approaches to understanding the subject content of problems.
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3. Zak A. Z. Thinking of a junior schoolchild. St. Petersburg: Assistance, 2004.
4. Zak A. Z. Diagnosis of differences in the thinking of younger schoolchildren. Moscow: Genesis, 2007.
5. Zak A.Z. Development and diagnosis of thinking in adolescents and high school students. Moscow: IG-SOTSIN, 2010.
6. Rubinstein S. L. Fundamentals of general psychology. St. Petersburg: Peter, 2019.