Application of new technologies on the example of unmanned vehicles using artificial intelligence

UDC 621.311
Publication date: 02.03.2024
International Journal of Professional Science №3-2-2024

Application of new technologies on the example of unmanned vehicles using artificial intelligence

Lipatov Maxim Sergeevich,
Maximov Yakov Vyacheslavovich
1. Senior Lecturer of the Department of Heat Power Installations and Heat Engines,
St. Petersburg State University of Industrial Technologies and Design.
Higher School of Technology and Energy
2. Student of the Department of Automated Electric Drive and Electrical Engineering, St. Petersburg State University of Industrial Technology and Design.
Higher School of Technology and Energy
Abstract: The popularity of unmanned electric transport in logistics is growing every year, due to the transition to environmentally friendly technologies and the growing trend towards environmental protection. Cargo transportation on unmanned electric vehicles is showing particular growth, combining high efficiency, cost savings and respect for the environment. In this paper, an analysis of the use of electric transport in Russia today has been carried out.
Keywords: heat networks, heat chamber, monitoring, defect, power engineering, heat supply.

The movement of unmanned vehicles (UV) is carried out autonomously, without human intervention, thanks to various sensors and software that analyzes the environment and makes decisions based on the information received. UV have the potential for economic benefits and increased road safety. Their use helps to reduce the risks of accidents, optimize costs, increase the efficiency of transport operations and reduce the overall accident rate on the roads.

Unmanned vehicles are automated vehicles that find applications in logistics. They include:

— self-driving cars and trucks;

— unmanned aerial vehicles and drones;

— unmanned naval vessels;

— specialized unmanned vehicles for warehouses and delivery of goods.

The introduction of unmanned technologies in logistics promises to take this industry to a new level of development, solving many problems related to cargo transportation. The use of artificial intelligence (AI) will provide an opportunity for computer technology to perform tasks that require intellectual abilities, similar to intelligent beings. The use of AI in logistics will significantly increase the efficiency and quality of complex tasks. This technology can be used to optimize and improve the operation of logistics systems (plan routes and control inventory accounting of goods). In the field of transport management, AI is able to increase control over deliveries and optimize vehicle routes. Due to the AI’s ability to work without interruptions, quickly process large amounts of information, make informed decisions and work with high accuracy, it becomes a valuable tool for logistics. The development of electric-powered transport technologies, as well as unmanned vehicles, will make significant changes in the field of logistics in the coming years.

The primary means of transportation are electric cars and trucks, which form the basis of cargo transportation. In the Russian Federation, about 70% of goods are transported by road. Changes in motor transport have a significant impact on many transport and logistics companies. Therefore, it is important to consider electric vehicles in this context. A few years ago, electric cars were considered a highly specialized product that attracted the attention of only technology enthusiasts. However, today electric transport is gaining momentum and may soon displace traditional cars with internal combustion engines (ICE). In recent decades, most countries of the world have been worried about environmental problems and climate change. The attention of governments is focused on the emissions into the atmosphere produced by cars with ICE. According to OICA research in 2015, the global fleet consisted of 947 million passenger cars and 335 million commercial vehicles. The average annual sales of cars over the past 5 years amounted to about 85 million units (Fig.1) [1]. Experts predict that by the end of the next decade, the number of cars in the world will exceed 2 billion, so countries are striving to increase the share of environmentally friendly transport and reduce the number of cars with ICE.

Fig.1 Dynamics of car sales in the world by year (million units)

In various countries, there are incentives for the purchase of electric vehicles and other forms of support, which significantly reduces their cost to the end user. In addition, owners of electric vehicles in some regions are exempt from paying transport tax, have the opportunity to park for free in many cities and even charge their vehicle for free. Such measures stimulate an active transition to electric transport. In the future, it is planned to completely ban the sale of cars with internal combustion engines, which contributes to the development of environmentally friendly modes of transport and reduces the harmful effects on the environment.

According to the International Energy Agency, in 2022, 14% of passenger cars sold in the world were powered by electric traction. Every year over the past 10 years, sales of electric vehicles have increased. By 2025, the percentage of electric passenger cars sold could reach 24% of the total and 41% by 2030. The situation is different with trucks: the indicators of trucks sold remain at the level of 2017-2018 and remain at the level of 1.2% of all vehicles sold. The International Energy Agency predicts an increase in sales of electric freight vehicles to 5% by 2025 and to 13% of the total by 2030 [2].

The stagnation in sales of electric freight vehicles can be explained by several factors that affect its competitiveness and attractiveness to potential buyers:

— Low battery capacity. Travel distance and charging speed are critically important for freight transport. Insufficient battery capacity limits the ability to use electric trucks for long trips without frequent charging, which makes it difficult to integrate them into logistics systems.

— High cost. Electric trucks have a significantly higher price compared to traditional fuel-powered trucks, which can scare off potential buyers.

— The influence of climate. Cold climatic conditions can significantly reduce the travel distance of electric trucks, which creates problems for their use in cold regions.

— Insufficient infrastructure of charging stations. Access to charging stations is critical for the successful operation of electric trucks. The fragmented and underdeveloped infrastructure of charging stations limits the possibilities of using electric transport.

To overcome these obstacles, innovative thinking and the development of technologies aimed at increasing battery capacity, reducing production costs, adapting to different climatic conditions and expanding the infrastructure of charging stations are necessary. Such efforts can help to increase the attractiveness of electric freight transport in the market and its wider distribution.

Charging an electric vehicle is the most important operation during operation. At the moment, there are several types of charging stations for electric vehicles (Fig.2) [3].

Fig.2 Types of charging stations

Mode 1 is commonly referred to as a «cable» due to the small size of the device body, which practically does not stand out from the thickness of the wire. It has a number of disadvantages, primarily safety problems, but is sometimes used by motorists for lack of alternatives.;

Mode 2 – Standard AC charging. It is suitable for charging absolutely all types of machines, filling a 20-24 kWh battery in 6-7 hours;

Mode 3 is the most powerful solution available for installation in AC power grids. This type is fast and popular, but is only compatible with Type 1 and Type 2 connectors;

Mode 4 – in addition to the fact that this type of charging stations is supported only in new cars, it will also require the owner to change the design documentation of the building, followed by the installation of a dedicated electrical line.

Various methods of charging electric vehicles include the use of a household outlet with a voltage of 220 V. To do this, you need an appropriate cable that converts alternating current to direct current to charge the battery. The cable is equipped with a protective unit that controls temperature and voltage, ensuring safe charging. Although this charging method is slow, it treats the battery carefully and prolongs its service life. Wireless charging technologies for electric vehicles are also being developed, although they are not yet as widespread as the Tesla Supercharger. These devices are based on magnetic induction, installed in special parking lots and under the bottom of cars. Despite the fact that this technology is at the experimental stage, many companies, including Plugless, WiTricity, Evatran, BMW, Volvo and others, are already implementing it into their electric vehicle models [4]. An important advantage of wireless charging is that there is no need to use wires and connectors, which makes the charging process more convenient for users. But, so far, wireless charging technology is more experimental and has not been widely used.

Definitely, electric transport has a number of advantages compared to the vehicles we are familiar with, based on internal combustion engines:

— lower noise level;

— no exhaust emissions;

— reduction of fuel costs;

— reduction of maintenance costs;

— fast acceleration.

The electric motor does not make a sound, which is an advantage for using electric vehicles in cities with high population density, which increases comfort for residents. The absence of harmful emissions increases the purity of the air, which has a positive effect on human health and the environment. The cost of charging electric vehicles is comparatively less than the cost of one refueling vehicle with an internal combustion engine, which will allow logistics companies that deliver goods to significantly reduce fuel costs. The maintenance costs of electric vehicles are lower due to fewer parts and no need for regular oil changes and technical fault checks. Electric traction transport devices allow you to accelerate faster due to the ability to use all the power at once. Electric motors have maximum torque even from zero revolutions, while vehicles on ICE have maximum torque only in a narrow range of revolutions. Also, the use of electric transport in logistics can positively affect the company’s image and attract an additional stream of customers, due to the growing interest in electrification and the trend towards caring for the environment.

However, electric-powered vehicles also have a number of disadvantages:

  1. Limited power reserve.
  2. The need for infrastructure.
  3. High cost.
  4. Long charging time.
  5. Difficulties in long-distance use.
  6. Lack of power.
  7. Reducing the range of travel at low temperatures.

Unlike traditional vehicles, which can be filled with gasoline or diesel fuel at any gas station, electric vehicles need to recharge the battery. The power reserve is limited, so drivers need to plan their route by limiting the distance or look for fast charging stations. The network of charging stations for electric vehicles is still limited.

At the same time, even existing stations are often inconveniently located, take up more space and require complex access procedures. Electric vehicles are much more expensive than traditional vehicles. This is due to the technologies used to manufacture batteries, motors, electronics and other components. The high cost reduces the level of their availability for most buyers. Charging the battery can take from several hours to several days [5]. This can be inconvenient for long-distance travel, as well as negatively affect the speed of delivery. Due to the limited power reserve and lack of charging stations, electric vehicles cannot compete with traditional vehicles based on ICE over long distances. They may be a good option only for short-distance trips or trips within the city limits.

In winter, the range of electric vehicles is reduced. This is due to the fact that at low temperatures, the chemical reaction inside the battery slows down. Electric vehicles are equipped with battery heating and cooling systems for operation in temperature ranges from minus 20℃ to plus 50℃. This system is powered by the battery itself, which affects the range of electric vehicles. In winter, the range is reduced by 20-30%. In addition, charging in the cold season will take longer due to the need to heat the battery [6]. When connected to the charging of an electric vehicle, the battery will first warm up, and then charging will only begin. Electric vehicles, although they are more environmentally friendly, may be less powerful than ICE vehicles. This can be especially problematic when used on long trips.

Of course, electric-powered transport has a number of disadvantages, mainly related to the battery, charging and availability of infrastructure. However, they are still developing and improving, and many of these problems can be solved in the near future. It is also worth addressing the issue of the impact of electric transport on the environment. Electric-powered vehicles do not emit harmful emissions during operation. However, the production of batteries and their disposal are not so environmentally friendly. The production of lithium-ion batteries is also an energy-intensive process that can use large amounts of energy and cause emissions of carbon dioxide and other harmful substances. In addition, after the end of the battery life cycle, their disposal can also have a negative impact on the environment. The production of lithium-ion batteries required for electric vehicles requires rare metals such as lithium, cobalt, nickel and others. The extraction of these metals has a negative impact on the environment. Mining processes can lead to contamination of water and soil, as well as the release of toxic substances.

It is also worth noting that with the increase in the number of electric-powered transport units, the need for electricity to charge electric vehicles will also increase. This may lead to the use of non-ecological methods of electricity production by electricity supplier companies. Although electric vehicles are generally considered more environmentally friendly than vehicles with internal combustion engines, their environmental efficiency depends on a number of factors, including the production and disposal of lithium-ion batteries, the extraction of rare metals and total electricity consumption. At the moment, it can be noted that the use of electric transport in logistics is one of the most promising areas of development.

Due to environmental friendliness and cost-effectiveness, electric trucks and passenger vehicles are becoming increasingly popular among logistics companies. Electric vehicles have a huge potential for use in logistics in the near future.


1. Industry-theoretical analysis of the global automotive market at the present stage - [Internet resource] - URL: (Accessed 12.03.24)
2. Shiryaev, A.D. Actual problems of staffing the fuel and energy complex of the Russian Federation / A.D. Shiryaev, A. I. Sobolevskaya // Youth, education and science of the XXI century : Materials of the scientific and practical conference of students and postgraduates dedicated to the memory of the Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation, Professor V.S. Sominsky, St. Petersburg, April 19, 2023 of the year. – St. Petersburg: SPbGUPTD, 2023. – pp. 62-66. – EDN EMMKEC.
3. Gruzdeva, L. M. The use of artificial intelligence in transport: prospects for the development of unmanned technologies / L. M. Gruzdeva // Artificial intelligence and digitalization trends: technogenic breakthrough as a challenge to law : Materials of the Third International Transport and Legal Forum, Moscow, February 10-11, 2021. – Moscow: Russian University of Transport, 2021. – pp. 376-381.
4. Chen D., Wang Y., Kockelman, Kara M. Where are the electric vehicles? A spatial model for vehiclechoice count data // Journal of Transport Geography. 2015. Vol. 43. Pp. 181–188.
5. Tesla car, the principle of operation - [Internet resource] - URL: (Accessed 05.02.24) 6. Korobeev A. I. Unmanned vehicles: new challenges to public safety [Text] / A.I. Korobeev, A. I. Chuchaev // Lex russica (Russian Law). – 2019. - No. 2. - pp. 9-28.