Methods for determining the type of planning in younger adolescents

UDC 740
Publication date: 04.08.2023
International Journal of Professional Science №8-2023

Methods for determining the type of planning in younger adolescents

Zak Anatoly
Leading Researcher, Psychological Institute of the Russian Academy of Education,
Moscow, Russia.
Abstract: The article presents a scenario for the interaction of fifth-grade students with a computer version of the author's methodology "Repetition" to determine the type of planning used in solving spatial-combinatorial problems. In the conditions of individual experiments with 23 students to test the proposed scenario, the possibilities of the computer version of the "Repetition" method in differentiation were shown types of planning among fifth graders: 65.2% of students used meaningful planning in solving problems, 34.8% used formal planning. In the future, it is planned to test the proposed scenario in work with sixth-graders and younger students, primarily with fourth-graders.
Keywords: fifth-graders, individual experiments, spatial-combinatorial tasks, types of problem solving planning, computer version of the "Repetition" methodology.


The solution of the problem of the federal project «Digital Educational Environment» is associated with the creation of a modern and safe digital educational environment that ensures high quality and accessibility of education of all types and levels [4].

As part of the solution of the noted task, it is supposed to carry out not only the digitalization of the content of secondary school curricula, but also the development of digital technologies for diagnosing subject and meta-subject results of education, reflecting, in particular, the development of cognitive (cognitive) meta-subject competencies.

The provisions of the Federal State Educational Standard for Basic General Education [8] indicate that meta-subject educational results (including cognitive ones) are formed in primary school students as a result of studying the main educational program. At the same time, it is noted that cognitive meta-subject educational results reflect the development by students of various kinds of universal cognitive actions, associated, in particular, with independent planning to obtain the required result.

Studies show (see, for example, [1], [2], [7]) that problem solving can be planned in different ways. In one case, the first part of solution planning is a complete analysis of the conditions of the problem in order to determine all the specific executive actions necessary to achieve the desired result. In the second part of planning, a program is developed to achieve the desired result, in which all the necessary actions are included in a certain sequence. Only after this is the problem solved. In this case, planning is carried out as a meaningful action associated with programming the solution of the problem as a whole.

Otherwise, planning is done differently. Firstly, there is no complete analysis of the conditions of the problem and clarification of the composition of all actions necessary to obtain the required result, and, secondly, there is no independent part associated with drawing up a program for the implementation of all necessary actions.

With this implementation of planning, one or two actions to solve the problem are first planned, then carried out, then again there comes a stage where actions are planned, and a stage where these actions are performed. In this case, in the course of planning, there is no construction of the entire sequence of necessary actions before their implementation, since first one part of the required sequence is outlined and carried out, then another part, and so on. Such planning is carried out as a formal action associated with programming the solution of a problem in parts.

  1. Materials and methods.

The purpose of this study was to characterize the possibilities of the computer version of our technique «Repetition» [1, 5 ] in determining the type of planning in younger adolescents.

It was assumed that the developed scenario for the interaction of students with the computer version of the «Repetition» method really allows you to determine the type of planning (meaningful, in general or formal, in parts) when solving problems. In this, we proceeded from the fact that the computer version of the methodology was developed in such a way as to create conditions for solving problems that are as identical as possible to those conditions in which problems are solved in the original methodology (when developing this methodology, modern approaches to information and communication technologies for diagnostics of educational achievements of schoolchildren were taken into account [6 ]).

In the first part of working with the computer version (as in the original method, see [ 1 ]), students learn the names of the cells of the playing field. To do this, appropriate texts and images are placed on the computer screen.


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